Patrick Reynolds, PhD

Environmental Consultant & Website Designer

Portfolio of International Transboundary Water Management Projects: Team Leader Roles


Technical Assistance for Water Quality Management of Arda River

Project Number: PHARE BG 2003/005-630.05
Country: Bulgaria
Contracting Authority: The Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works
Contractor: ARCADIS (Netherlands)
Beneficiaries: Municipality of Kurdzhali and Arda River Basin stakeholders
Contract Value: 475,000 Euro
Project Start Date: 12 December 2005
Project Duration: 18 Months

Overall Objectives:
  • To promote co-operation between the affected border regions and thereby to contribute to the establishing of co-operation networks among counterpart organisations and entities on both sides of the border
  • To continue implementation of the acquits with particular emphasis on water quality in respect of the Directive 2000/EEC for the establishing of framework for Community action in the field of water policy; Convention on protection and use of the cross-border water currents and the international lakes signed on 13.03.1992 with a decision of the Council of Ministers
  • To establish a working partnership between the stakeholders of Bulgaria and Greece based on European standards for integrated management and pollution prevention of Arda River waters in the affected border regions in compliance with:b) Bilateral agreements between Bulgaria and Greece in the field of water management and national legislation
  • To continue strengthening administrative, monitoring and enforcement capacity at the regional and local level
Project Results and Outputs:
  • Establishing and training of a transboundary Arda River Basin Board comprising of representatives from all relevant stakeholders in Bulgaria and Greece.
  • Assessment of the status of the surface water within the Arda Basin including additional investigations with a focus on reservoirs within the Basin
  • Assessment of the present Monitoring Systems and development of an approach for putting of the Arda River water quality monitoring network into compliance with the requirements of the WFD
  • Training on biological monitoring
  • Raising Awareness on WFD related issues amongst stakeholders and the general public within the Arda basin
  • Documentary Film about the Arda River Basin (including the Ardas in Greece) and its future management structures was involved in the PR campaign part of the Project
  • Modern Arda Basin Board website providing information and facilitating public access to databases with updated monitoring data
Reports Produced:
  • Monitoring Report
  • Assessment Report
  • Biomonitoring Report
  • General Physico-Chemistry
  • Depth Profiles in Reservoirs
  • Bacteria and Chlorophyll A (Graphs)
  • Priority and Other Substances
  • Benthic Macroinvertebrates
  • Fish Fauna
  • Phytoplankton Studies of Reservoirs
  • Phytobenthos in Rivers
  • Assessment of River Habitiats
  • Hydromorphology Report
  • Report on the Ardas River in Greece
  • Physico-Chemical Quality Elements - Historical Monitoring Data
  • Historical Biological Monitoring Data

    Black Sea

    The Black Sea Ecosystem Recovery Project

    The project (BSERP) supported regional aspects of nutrient control in the Black Sea coastal countries. It also aimed to strengthen the role of the Black Sea Commission to ensure the formulation, adoption, and implementation of a suite of harmonized legal and policy instruments for tackling the problem of eutrophication and release of certain hazardous substances; and to facilitate ecosystem recovery, including through sustainable use of living marine resources.

    The GEF Implementing Agency was the United Nations Development Agency (UNDP). The executing agent of the project was the United Nation Office for Project Services (UNOPS). This page of the website reflects my involvement and responsibilities as acting Project Coordinator/Chief Technical Advisor during Phase I of the BSERP.

    • Establishing basin-wide consultative groups
    • Establishing and functioning of national inter-sectoral bodies
    • Reinforcing the legal background and promoting the implementation of the Global Programme of Action
    • Assisting with the project institutional network, including the Advisory Groups of the Black Sea Commission, Regional Activity Centres, NGOs and other stakeholders in project implementation
    • Management of the Small Grants Programme
    • Diffusing project outputs through newsletters, posters, technical reports and public information bulletins
    • Coordination of relevant activities of donors, participants in the funding and implementation of the overall Black Sea Environmental Programme
    • Preparation of progress reports concerning programme activities
    The following duties were carried out:
    • Management of the Programme Coordination Unit, its staff, budget and imprest fund
    • Preparation of the annual work plan of the programme on the basis of the Project Document, in close coordination with the national Coordinators, GEF partners, relevant donors and the Permanent Secretariat
    • Coordination and monitoring of the activities described in the work plan
    • Preparation and overseeing the development of Terms of Reference for consultants and contractors
    • Preparation and overseeing substantive and operational reports from the programme
    • Assisting the Black Sea Commission in the integration of its Secretariat and institutional network and to plan activities jointly
    • Ensuring consistency between the various programme elements (initiatives outcomes shown below)
    • Fostering and establishing links with other related Black Sea basin programmes
    The following outcomes of the BSERP Phase 1 were achieved:

    1. Support to the integration of a sustainable Secretariat for the Bucharest Convention
    • Programme Implementation Unit (PIU) fully staffed and operational
    • Established and operate the BSEP Joint Programme Management Group, the BSEP Executive Board and the Project Steering Group
    • Advisory Groups and Activity Centres operational and engaged in addressing transboundary issues
    • Istanbul Commission able to raise funding for transboundary projects
    • A Joint Management Committee was established between the Black Sea and Danube Commissions for basin wide decision-making
    • Information in the public domain throughout the Black Sea coastal region regarding the transboundary problems and solutions offered
    2. Regional actions for improving land-based activities (LBA) and legislation to control eutrophication
    • Prepared an in-depth study and stakeholder consultations at the national and regional levels on existing legislation, policies and practices, and identification of gaps and prospects for change
    • prepared a study of emergent issues in the Black Sea and their social and economic root causes based on application of the GIWA methodology.
    • Ensured clear commitments were made at the national and regional levels, for legal, administrative and technical measures
    3. Assisting countries to improve their knowledge of the process of eutrophication in the Black Sea
    • Integration of international study group on Black Sea Eutrophication
    • Peer reviewed study plan
    • Completion of 2 surveys in 2002 and studies of nutrient sources, sinks and fluxes
    • Aided the Black Sea Commission in the publication of the State of the Black Sea Report, 2003
    • Provided copies of the satellite colour scan maps and explanatory reports for distribution in all six Black Sea countries
    4. Introducing new sectoral laws and policies for monitoring the effectiveness of measures to control pollution
    • Provided a detailed review of agricultural, industrial, and municipal policies and practices, and the mechanisms for implementation of BAP and BAT in the Black Sea region. The development of detailed proposals accepted by the countries to implement the measures were planned for completion in Phase II of the project
    • Adopted a new system of process, stress reduction and environment status indicators employed, in parallel with the work undertaken during the PDF-B phase
    • Indicator data used to enforce existing/new laws, policies and regulations regulation and for regional status and trends reports
    • Conducted a pilot status-monitoring programme and published its report.
    • Use of the information base by all six countries
    5. Assisting the public in implementing activities to reduce eutrophication - support to regional NGOs
    • Full implementation of first tranche of 29 projects
    • Effective contribution of NGOs evidenced by the establishment of a regional NGO Working Group on nutrient reduction, media reports and presence at significant regional open meetings
    • Lists of trained people from coastal countries
    • Environmental Education Study Pack published and incorporated in education programmes in the region
    • Train Sea Coast Stakeholder training course on agriculture/environment prepared, validated and delivered to trainers
    • Development of a novel public awareness campaign: 'The Sea Shell Palace'
    6. Formulating proposals for market-based instruments for limiting nutrient emissions
    • Prepared a 'Gap analysis' showing the difference between the current use of economic instruments and those that would be required for the effective implementation of national nutrient reduction strategies is undertaken
    • Highlighted opportunities for public-private sector partnership (e.g. introduction of phosphate free detergents, new technology, organic farming, etc.) within countries identified
    7. Measures to protect ecologically sensitive areas of the Black Sea
    • Concluded the negotiations of regional Fisheries Convention, particularly in relationship with the need to protect key habitats
    • Prepared an assessment of transboundary populations of fish species and their relationship with sensitive habitats and current fishing practices
    • Prepared a Preliminary study on the evaluation of potential fisheries-free zones and Marine Protected Areas, their promotion with Black Sea governments and stakeholders; their incorporation into the Landscape and Biological Diversity Protocol to the Bucharest Convention
    • Training of coast guards etc. for their enforcement (by means of the preparation of a popular guidebook, which was distributed to all riparian countries
    8. The Development and approval of BSERP Phase II Project Document by the GEF Council
    • A full Project Document was produced with a full endorsement from the GEF CEO

    Integrated Management of the Waters of Nestos/Mesta River Basin

    Project Number: EUROPEAID/119665/D/SV/BG
    Country: Bulgaria
    Contracting Authority: The Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works
    Contractor: Sogreah (France) and Project Management Ltd (Ireland)
    Beneficiaries: The West Aegean River Basin Direcorate, Blagoevgrad; The Ministry of Environment and Water; The West Aegean River Basin Council and The Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works
    Contract Value: 400,000 Euro
    Project Start Date: 01 December 2004
    Project Duration: 12 Months

    Overall Objectives:
    The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the recommendation of the PHARE CBC Project “Integrated Management of the Waters of Nestos/Mesta River Basin South West Region Blagoevgrad District - Bulgaria”. The summary recommendations are presented in terms of the requirements for implementation of the EU Water framework Directive (2000/60/EC).

    The contract objectives were in accordance with the requirements of the Water Framework Directive and recommendations of the Common Implementation Strategy guidance documents as follows:
    • Detailed compilation and assessment of river basin characteristics and data based on the results of the Basin Overview prepared by the Western Aegean Basin Directorate for the Nestos/Mesta River Basin utilising basic modelling
    • Approval by the Nestos/Mesta Joint Coordination Committee (JCC) of a data model and GIS design
    • Strategic and management capacity building and support to the JCC
    • Data, technical and human resources gap analysis and identification of critical requirements to be met towards the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the Nestos/Mesta river basin
    Project Results and Outputs:
    • A detailed compilation and assessment, including basic modelling, based on the River Basin overview, of the basin characteristics
    • A proposal for a common data model and GIS design approved by the Joint Coordination Committee
    • Technical capacity building and assessment of the staff of the West Aegean River Basin Directorate (WARBD)
    • Strategic capacity building and operation and management support to the international JCC
    • Identification of specific gaps in data, technical and human resources critical for the further implementation of the requirements of the Directive (2000/60/EC) on the Nestos/Mesta river basin and identification of main and river basin management issues
    • Presentation of the Consultant’s findings and recommendations at minimum 2 seminars to the JCC and the WABRD
    Reports Produced:
    • GIS Model Report
    • River basin Characterisation Report
    • Biological Assessment
    • Economic Analysis
    • Point Source Modelling
    • Data, Technical and Human Resource Gap Analysis
    • Assessment of Technical and Administrative Capacity
    • Strategic and Management Support to the Joint Coordination Committee
    • Project Summary and Recommendations
    Orange Senqu

    The Development of a Framework for Managing Water Resource Quality and Objectives in the Orange-Senqu River Basin

    Project Number: EuropeAid/125153/D/SER/Multi
    Country: South Africa
    Contracting Authority: European Development Fund
    Contractor: Atkins
    Beneficiaries: International Water Unit, Botswana, Dept. of Water Affairs, Lesotho, Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry, Namibia and Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, South Africa
    Contract Value: 20,000 Euro
    Project Start Date: 01 November 2009
    Project Duration: 2 Months

    This activity is intended to support ORASECOM to develop approaches to water quality management that maintains appropriate sovereignty of the Member States, are consistent with the resource constraints in the Member States, and that recognise the commitment to cooperate and share skills and best practices. The aim of this report is to produce a vision and supporting framework for how the organisation wishes to address water quality management. In order to establish a regionally effective water management and quality assurance system, which is capable of assessing future monitoring (and donor-funded specific studies), the Member States may choose to (a) provide support under the auspice of the current Technical Task Team, (b) designate an Implementing Agent, (c) employ consultants through ORASECOM, or (d) instigate the formation of a Task Team with specific responsibilities for monitoring, laboratory analysis, information and data management.

    Taking into account the current financial and human resource constraints in the region, an initial monitoring network is proposed only for the purposes of transboundary water management, which makes use of current national monitoring locations. Selection criteria for transboundary monitoring resulted in the identification of an initial list of 11 relevant surface monitoring locations, six in the Upper Orange-Senqu catchment with five in the Lower Orange catchment on the Namibian-South African border. Proposals for the incorporation of further key transboundary monitoring points into the network are expected from the Member States following the presentation of the draft report, e.g. additional monitoring points in the Middle Vaal system may be added.

    An initial set of priority monitoring variables has been identified for each of the proposed monitoring stations. Their selection is based on existing data and knowledge, known pollution sources and the sensitivity of specific water users. The concept of Trigger Values for each variable is also proposed and may in the future be decided by ORASECOM for each of the monitoring variables at each site based on knowledge of potential pollution sources and water uses. The breeching of a value would initiate a response from ORASECOM to ask for a detailed investigation of the problem to be carried out by bilateral organisations, or possibly for ORASECOM to initiate investigations independently with support provided from donor agencies.

    Priority monitoring variables and trigger values (TV) are proposed for the following water uses in the Upper Orange-Senqu and the Lower Orange catchment areas - agriculture (aquaculture, irrigation and livestock watering); domestic, ecosystem protection, industrial and recreation. The TVs will need to be agreed on a bilateral basis for each sampling station based on the current status, historical trend and level of protection required by the Member States. The basis for a transboundary groundwater monitoring programme (as part of the regional monitoring programme) is suggested for the four main transboundary aquifers. A proposal is made for qualitative and quantitative monitoring. A decision is required from the Member States in relation to the choice of monitoring boreholes.

    Without an appropriate QA/QC system in place, any attempt to perform monitoring on a transboundary level may result in a lack of trust between the Member States arising from a lack of traceability of data, a lack of harmonization of procedures applied by the laboratories: from the sampling step on the field to data given back (concentration measurements accompanied with their uncertainty), and even a lack of representativeness (data not reflecting the reality). Therefore, the basis for an effective regional analytical quality control is outlined. This includes the introduction of (i) analytical accuracy targets for monitoring the quality of water, and (ii) a performance-testing scheme, which can be established and implemented as the primary inter-laboratory quality control program in the Orange-Senqu River Basin, with the participation of the laboratories involved in future transboundary water quality monitoring.

    With respect to future data management, National Information Managers (NIMs) are proposed in order to take responsibly for collection of the data from designated Member State NRLs) involved in the monitoring programme, where the data from sampling and analysis are generated. NIMs may take responsible for data checking, preparation in an agreed data exchange file format (DEFF) ready for sending to the Central Point. Storage of monitoring data is proposed under the auspice of the South Africa DWAF in their Water Management System Water Quality Database extending the datasets to include data from Botswana (groundwater only), Lesotho and Namibia. An assessment of the collated data can be presented by ORASECOM in a summary annual report on an annual basis, highlighting the status of the Orange-Senqu River Basin in respect to water quality.

    In order to agree the preferred route for the development of a regional framework for water quality management, a separate questionnaire, which accompanies this report, has been provided to each Member State to determine their preferences relating to the above issues, namely:
    • Options for Institutional Development
    • Options for a Monitoring Network (surface water and groundwaters)
    • The selection of monitoring variables for the water quality monitoring network
    • Options for the introduction of a QA/QC system
    • Options of the use of Trigger Values as a management tool for ORASECOM
    • Options for data management
    The responses of the Member States will be collated during early 2010 and incorporated into this report, which will then represent the principle foundation of the regional development of water quality management framework for ORASECOM. Future development of the framework will be driven by ORASECOM with support from GTZ.
    Upper Shire

    The Development of an Environmental and Natural Resource Management Action Plan (ENRMAP) for the Upper Shire River Basin

    Country: Malawi
    Contracting Authority: Millennium Challenge Corporation
    Contractor: LTS International
    Beneficiaries: Millennium Challenge Account - Malawi, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Environmental Affairs, Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development
    Contract Value: 1,200,000 USD
    Project Start Date: 9th June 2010
    Project Duration: 6 Months

    In conjunction with MCC in Washington and MCA-Malawi, LTS Ltd, in partnership with The International Union for Conservation and Nature (IUCN), the Centre for Development Management (CDM) and Water Resource Associates (WRA), have recently been engaged in the development of an Environmental and Natural Resource Management Action Plan (ENRMAP) for the Upper Shire River Basin, with a focus on the East and West Malombe catchments.

    In order to prepare the baseline for the ENRMAP, the Technical Assistance Team (TAT) undertook the following tasks:
    • An identification of the current and potential stakeholders in the Malombe catchments
    • An inventory and assessment of previous and current watershed and ENRM projects
    • Determination of the economic, social and biological drivers of degradation, including community perceptions
    • A description of land use practices, including documentation of seasonal land use and environmental conditions
    • A detailed mapping of the drivers of weed infestation and siltation
    • An initial climate risk and vulnerability assessment
    • A characterisation of the populations and organisational nodes
    • An assessment of gender inequalities
    • Identification of the social and economic incentives
    In response to the aquatic plant problem facing the Upper Shire system, it would seem sensible at present to try to reduce the spread and density of water hyacinth as an essential item in the production of the floating islands. This could be performed by reviving the early efforts to provide adequate numbers and species of biocontrol agents to reduce the growth, flowering, seed set and so spread of this plant.

    In relation to the siltation problem affecting the HEPs, analysis of the soil erosivity in the Malombe catchment (377,739 hectares) revealed that of the approximate 12,000 hectares of areas identified as having high soil erosion potential, more than 40% and 30% of these areas exist within the Phililongwe Hills and Shire Highlands LZ respectively. These areas together also account for more than 45% of areas identified with a medium level of sediment production potential.

    Our findings also revealed that climate change is likely to have significant implications for the livelihoods and wellbeing of communities living in the Upper Shire basin and may exacerbate problematic siltation, aquatic vegetation and river flow reliability issues for downstream hydro-electric power production. Specifically, the projected higher temperatures and more intense periods of rainfall may in the future:
    • Increase the frequency and severity of floods and droughts
    • Challenge the viability and productivity of agriculture and fisheries
    • Bring increased pressure on ecosystem services and forests, enhance land degradation and soil erosion
    • Introduce new, or exacerbate existing health problems such as waterborne disease, schistosomiasis and malaria
    • Damage transport infrastructure and human settlements through flooding
    • Change patterns of water resource use, availability and introduce conflict
    Collectively, these issues (social, economic and environmental) are each likely to have negative impacts on household income and economic development in the basin, driving greater inequity and poverty particularly for women and already vulnerable groups. In order to develop criteria for identifying and prioritising interventions for the functioning of the ENRMAP, there must be consensus on what needs to be done if real action is to take place. Our TAT met this challenge by acting as facilitators of a vision-building exercise. The main focus of visioning is to understand where the (Upper) Shire Basin needs to be in the future and mapping out a set of structured processes and actions for getting there. In addition to consultations on the community and district level, this approach required the participation of the larger ENRMAP Steering Committee consultative body to cover multi sectoral and multi disciplinary interests.

    Prior to the development of the ENRMAP, the TAT previously outlined: i) the determination of priority areas within the Upper Shire in relation to the potential for soil erosion, (ii) priorities based on stakeholders assessments for a compilation of environmentally positive interventions in the areas of economy, energy, environment and civil society, (iii) a review of the results from all stakeholders and identifying and prioritising interventions that warrant inclusion in the ENRMAP based on agreed criteria, and (iv) an initial selection of key performance indicators to monitor the effectiveness of the prioritised interventions during the 5 year operational period.

    Once all the data were developed and there was consensus on the scientific quality and analysis provided, our TAT worked with the ENRMAP Task Force and Steering Committee to develop the ERNMAP.

    To develop long-term strategies, the TAT undertook the following steps in the formulation of the ENRMAP, which form the contents of the final report:
    • Problems analysis in terms of causes and effects
    • Overall goals of the ENRMAP including objectives, specific objectives in relation to the problems identified
    • Guiding principles and expansion strategies for addressing the problems, in terms of a set of expected outputs with measurable indicators, incorporating international best practice
    • Priority intervention areas, programs and action required on each of the outputs
    • Management and implementation arrangements Responsibilities
    • Intervention budgetary costs, benefits and rate of return

    Improvement of the Management of the Vardar River Basin

    Assignment: Assisting in the process of improving the quality of water resources shared by Greece and the formerYugoslav republic of Macedonia, i.e. the Vardar river and the Dojran lake, so as to progress towards compliance with the EU Water Framework Directive.
    Contracting Authority: European Agency for Reconstruction, Skopje
    Beneficiaries: The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning (MEPP), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Economy of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MAFWE), and the Municipality of Dojran
    Contract Value: 1,000,000 Euro
    Financing Agency: European Union (CARDS)
    Consortium: Euroconsult Mott MacDonald (NL), Eptisa (Spain), Mott Macdonald (UK), GEING (fYROM)
    Composition of Team: Team Leader, Water Resources Specialist, Water Quality Specialist, Industrial Pollution Specialist, Hydrologist, Legal expert
    Period of Assignment: 18 months (Start date: January 2007)

    Background: The Vardar River Basin covers 80% of the territory of the FYR of Macedonia, and its water resources are important to the Republic of Macedonia for irrigation, energy production, drinking water, industrial water, and as a conduit for disposal of wastewater.The Vardar (or Axios River as it is referred to in Greece) is important to Greece as a resource for irrigation water and municipal/industrial water supply. However, Greece is worried by the declining volumes of flow in the Axios as well as the high levels of pollution in the river as it flows from the FYR Macedonia. There are many cross-border aspects of water management in the river basin that require cooperation between the two countries.

    The Vardar River Basin and its water resources are important to the Republic for irrigation (63%), fish ponds (11%), energy production (no usage), drinking water (12%), industrial water (15%), and as a conduit for disposal of wastewater. Lake Dojran is a sub-catchment of the Vardar/Axios River basin as its waters would pass into the Vardar/Axios River if levels in the lake had not fallen below the threshold of the outflowing stream. Lake Dojran is important because of its unique ecology and its resource for tourism, fishing and health spas. The Vardar/Axios River is important to Greece as a resource for irrigation water and municipal/industrial water supply. However, Greece is worried by reducing volumes of flow in the Axios as well as high levels of pollution in the river as it flows from the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Thermaikos Gulf, into which the Vardar/Axios River flows, has been identified as a hot spot by the Mediterranean Pollution Monitoring and Research Programme (MEDPOL). Water is abstracted from the streams flowing into Lake Dojran and the aquifers on their territory around Dojran, mainly for irrigation. Surface streams and irrigated areas in the catchment are mainly on the Greek side of the lake and investigations carried out into water balances by experts in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia have not had access to such information. There are many cross-border aspects of water management in the river basin that require cooperation between the two countries. Over recent years there has been little such cooperation and each country knows little of water management activities in the other.

    Description of the Project: This project was designed to assist the FYR of Macedonia in entering into joint efforts with Greece to improve cooperation on river basin planning and water management. However, it was known that the fYR of Macedonia has to improve water management within its own borders, as a prerequisite, before promoting a joint management with Greece. The project's objective was therefore to improve the quality of the water resources shared by Greece and the FYR Macedonia, i.e. the Vardar River and the Dojran Lake, so as to progress towards compliance with the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). This project paved the way for the preparation of a comprehensive River Basin Management Plan (RBMP) in accordance with the EU Water Framework Directive (i.e. a joint plan between the FYR of Macedonia and Greece), which has been hampered by fragmented water management structures on the Macedonian side.

    Project Achievements:
    • Identification of the reasons for the lowering of Lake Dojran and potential measures to recover lake levels and improve water quality
    • Calculation of the river basin's water balance by collecting, processing, completing and analyzing the hydrological and hydrogeological information
    • Compilation of an inventory of the most important industrial pollution sources in the Vardar River catchment and required actions to improve the quality of emissions from key polluters
    • Preparation of an analysis of water resources of the Vardar/Axios River
    • Inventory of water demands in the river basin (drinking water supply, irrigation, industry, environment, recreation)
    • Analysis of the combined effects of river pollution from all sources (not just industries) and river management practises (abstractions and operation of reservoirs)
    • Provision of an overview of the importance of water flows and quality to fisheries in the Vardar River basin
    • An assessment of groundwater monitoring arrangements in the Vardar River basin adjacent to the border with Greece and recommendations for any necessary improvements
    • Analysis of options for improved operational management of the Vardar River
    • Preparation of a River Basin Management Plan for the Vardar River in line with the requirements of the EU WFD
    • Planning the management measures programme, including potential measures to recover Lake Dojran levels
    • Improvement of the understanding within the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia of international water law and its application to transboundary water sharing and protection
    • As far as is possible, completion of the Joint River Basin Management Plan for the Vardar/Axios River Basin, according to the contexts of the WFD-annexed specifications
    Documentary Film
    • "Improvement of the Management of the Transboundary Water Resources in the Vardar River Basin". Running Time:16:27mins
    Reports and Documents Produced
    • Options for Improved Management of the Vardar
    • Assessment of the Effects of Pollution
    • Heavily Modified Water Bodies in the Vardar River Basin
    • Artificial Water Bodies in the Vardar River Basin
    • Groundwaters in the Vardar River Basin
    • Corine Land Cover of the vardar River Basin (Map)
    • Geology of the vardar River Basin (Map)
    • Hydrometric Network (Map)
    • Meterological Network (Map)
    • Summary on Sampling, Chemical, Biological and Hydromorphological Analysis
    • Macrophytes as Indicators of Ecological Status of the River Vardar and Lake Dojran
    • Fish as Indicators of Ecological Status of the River Vardar and Lake Dojran
    • Phytobenthos as Indicators of Ecological Status of the River Vardar and Lake Dojran
    • Proposal for GIS Design for the vardar River Basin
    • Assessment of the Most Serious Industrial Pollution
    • Overview of Fisheries
    • Ground Water Monitoring in Gevgelija Plain and Lake Dojran Area
    • Lake Dojran Water Balance Model
    • Vardar River Basin Water Resources
    • Preliminary River Basin Managment Plan for the Vardar River Basin